Measuring the Dependability and Consistency of a Construct

Measuring the Dependability and Consistency of a Construct

[Image Source](

Reliability is how much the measure of a construct is consistent and true. If utilization of this scale to measure a similar construct circumstance, do we get essentially a similar outcome without fail? A case of an unreliable measurement is individuals guessing your weight. Very likely, individuals will figure in an unexpected way, the diverse measures will be inconsistent, and in this manner, the “guessing” procedure of measurement is unreliable.

A more reliable measurement might be to utilize a weight scale, where you are probably going to get a similar value each time you advance on the scale, except if your weight has really changed between measurements. Note that reliability infers consistency yet not precision. In the event that the weight scale is adjusted mistakenly, it won’t measure your actual weight and is along these lines, not a legitimate measure. All things considered, the miscalibrated weight scale will at present give you a similar weight without fail, and henceforth the scale is reliable.

Sources of Unreliable Observation
* Observer’s Subjectivity
* Imprecise Questions
* Unfamiliarity

[Image Source](

Observer’s Subjectivity
In the event that employee morale in a firm is measured by viewing whether the employees grin at each other, regardless of whether they make jokes, et cetera, at that point diverse observers may surmise distinctive measures of morale in the event that they are viewing the employees on an exceptionally bustling day or a light day. Two observers may likewise construe diverse levels of morale around the same time, contingent upon what they see as a joke and what isn’t.

Imprecise Questions
On the off chance that you ask individuals what their compensation is, diverse respondents may interpret this inquiry distinctively as a month to month pay, yearly pay, or every hour wage, and henceforth, the subsequent observations will probably be very unique and unreliable.

Making inquiries about issues that respondents are not exceptionally well-known about or think about, for example, asking someone whether it’s happy with a nation’s association with other nation.

[Image Source](

Approaches to Verify Realibility
* Inter-rater Reliability
* Test-retest Reliability
* Split-half reliability.
* Internal Consistency Reliability

Inter-rater Reliability
Is a measure of consistency between at least two autonomous raters of a similar construct. In the event that the measure is categorical, an arrangement of all categories is characterized, raters verify which class every observation falls in, and the level of understanding between the raters is a gauge of inter-rater reliability.

For example, if there are two raters rating 100 observations into one of three conceivable categories, and their evaluations coordinate for 75% of the observations, at that point inter-rater reliability is 0.75. On the off chance that the measure is interval or ratio scaled, at that point a basic connection between’s measures from the two raters can likewise fill in as a gauge of inter-rater reliability.

[Image Source](

Test-retest Reliability
Is a measurement of similar constructs pointed to an identical example at the same time. If those observations have not changed generously between the two tests, at that point the measure is reliable. The relationship in observations between the two tests is a gauge of test-retest reliability. Note here that the time interval between the two tests is basic. The more is the time hole, the greater is the possibility that the two observations may change amid this time, and the lower will be the test-retest reliability.

Split-half reliability
Dividing the number measures in a given construct, splitting them into a half, and regulate the whole instrument to an example of respondents. Figure the total score for every half for every respondent, and the connection between’s the total scores in every half is a measure of split-half reliability. The more is the instrument, the more probable it is that the two halves of the measure will be comparable.

Internal Consistency Reliability
Is a measure of consistency between various items of a similar construct. In the event that a multiple-item construct measure is controlled to respondents, the extent to which respondents rate those items in a comparative way is an impression of internal consistency. This reliability can be evaluated as far as a normal inter-item relationship, normal item-to-total connection. For instance, on the off chance that you have a scale with six items, you will have fifteen diverse item pairings, and fifteen relationships between’s these six items.

[Image Source](

Measuring Social Capital
Measuring the Quality of Life and the Construction of Social Indicators
Participant Observation in Social Research
Validity and Reliability of Observation and Data Collection in Biographical Research
The conundrum of verification and validation of social sciencebasedmodels

Understanding Indexes in a Social Research

Understanding Indexes in a Social Research

[Image Source](

An index is a composite score got from collecting measures of numerous constructs utilizing an arrangement of rules and formulas. It is unique in relation to scales in that scales likewise total measures, however, these measures measure distinctive measurements or a similar measurement of a solitary construct. A notable case of an index is the consumer price index, which is processed each month by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI is a measure of how much consumers need to pay for goods and services,

8 Categories of Good and Services
* Food and Beverages
* Housing
* Apparel
* Transportation
* Healthcare
* Recreation
* Education
* Communication

Every month, government representatives bring everywhere throughout the nation to get the present prices of in excess of 80,000 things. Utilizing a convoluted weighting plan that considers the location and probability of procurement of everything, these prices are consolidated by analysts, which are then joined into a general index score utilizing a progression of formulas and rules.

Another case of index is socio-economic status (SES), additionally called the Duncan socioeconomic index (SEI).

[Image Source](

3 Elements of Socioeconomic Index
* Income
* Education
* Occupation

Income is measured in dollars, education in years accomplished, and occupation is ordered into classes or levels by status. These altogether different measures are consolidated to make a general SES index score, utilizing a weighted blend of occupational education and occupational income. In any case, SES index measurement has produced a considerable measure of contention and contradiction among specialists.

Procedure of Creating an Index

* Conceptualize and characterize the index and its constituent components. In spite of the fact that this seems basic, there might be a great deal of contradiction among judges on what constructs ought to be incorporated or prohibited from an index. For example, isn’t income corresponded with education and occupation, and assuming this is the case, would it be a good idea for us to incorporate one component just or each of the three components?

* Operationalize and measure every component. For example, in what manner will you classify occupations, especially since a few occupations may have changed with time.

* Create a rule for figuring the index score which includes heaps of subjectivity.

* Validate the index score utilizing existing or new information.

[Image Source](

Indexes usually include constructs that are altogether different from each other and are measured in various ways. Nonetheless, scales commonly include an arrangement of comparative things that utilization a similar rating scale.

Not at all like scales or indexes, typologies are multidimensional however incorporate just ostensible variables. For example, one can make a political typology of newspapers in light of their introduction toward residential and remote strategy, as communicated in their editorial columns. This typology can be utilized to arrange newspapers into one of four ideal types, recognize the conveyance of newspapers over these ideal types, and maybe even make a classificatory model to grouping newspapers into one of these four ideal types relying upon different characteristics.

[Image Source](

How To Construct an Index for Research
Index (Statistics)
The Differences Between Indexes and Scales
The Practice of Social Research
Methodology of the Social Development Indices

Specific Rating Scales for Research in Social Science

Specific Rating Scales for Research in Social Science

[Image Source](

Common Rating Scales
* Binary
* Likert
* Semantic Differential
* Guttman

Binary Scale
Binary scales are nominal scales comprising of binary items that expect one of two conceivable qualities, for example, yes or no, true or false.

Likert Scale
Composed by Rensis Likert, this is an extremely famous rating scale for measuring ordinal information in social science research.

Semantic Differential Scale
This is a composite scale where respondents are requested to show their sentiments or emotions toward a single proclamation utilizing distinctive sets of descriptors surrounded as perfect inverses.

Guttman Scale
Outlined by Louis Guttman, this composite scale utilizes a progression of items masterminded in expanding request of force of the construct of interest, from minimum exceptional to generally extraordinary.

[Image Source](

Based on Stevens statement, scaling is the process of assigning of objects to numbers as indicated by a run the show. This procedure of measuring theoretical ideas in solid terms stays one of the most troublesome assignments in observational social science research. The result of a scaling procedure is a scale, which is an experimental structure for measuring items or markers of a given construct. Comprehend that scales are somewhat unique in relation to rating scales. A rating scale is utilized to catch the respondents’ responses to a given thing, for example, for example, a nominal scaled thing catches a yes/no response and an interim scaled thing catches an incentive between strongly disagree to strongly agree.

Scales can be unidimensional or multidimensional, in light of whether the basic construct is unidimensional or multidimensional. Unidimensional scale measures constructs along a single scale, going from high to low. Note that a portion of these scales may incorporate multiple items, yet these items endeavor to measure the same basic measurement. This is especially the case with numerous social science constructs, for example, selfesteem, which are expected to have a single measurement going from low to high.

Multidimensional scales, then again, utilize distinctive items to measure each measurement of the construct independently, and after that join the scores on each measurement to make a general measure of the multidimensional construct. For example, scholarly inclination can be measured utilizing two separate trial of students’ mathematical and verbal capacity, and after that consolidating these scores to make a general measure for scholastic bent.

Popular Unidimensional Scaling
* Thurstone’s equal-appearing scaling
* Likert’s summative scaling
* Guttman’s cumulative scaling

[Image Source](

Thurstone’s equal-appearing scaling
Louis Thurstone, is one of the soonest and most popular scaling scholars, distributed a technique for equal-appearing interims in 1925. This strategy begins with an unmistakable theoretical meaning of the construct of interest. In view of this definition, potential scale items are produced to measure this construct. These items are created by specialists who know something about the construct being measured. The underlying pool of hopeful items ought to be worded in a comparable way, for example, by surrounding them as proclamations to which respondents may agree or disagree.

Likert’s summative scaling
The Likert technique, a unidimensional scaling strategy created by Murphy and Likert, is potentially the most prevalent of the three scaling approaches. Similarly as with Thurstone’s technique, the Likert strategy additionally begins with an unmistakable meaning of the construct of interest, and utilizing an arrangement of specialists to produce around 80 to 100 potential scale items.

Guttman’s cumulative scaling
Composed by Guttman, the cumulative scaling strategy depends on Emory Bogardus’ social distance technique, which expect that individuals’ readiness to take an interest in social relations with other individuals differ in degrees of force, and measures that power utilizing a rundown of items masterminded from slightest extreme to generally exceptional. The thought is that individuals who agree with one thing on this rundown additionally agree with every single past thing. By and by, we only from time to time locate an arrangement of items that matches this cumulative example superbly.

[Image Source](

Binary Scaling
Likert Scaling
Likert Scale
Guttman Scale
Level of Measurement
On the Theory of Scales of Measurement
General Issues in Scaling

Understanding Conceptualization and Operationalization and It’s Function with Constructs

Understanding Conceptualization and Operationalization and It’s Function with Constructs

[Image Source](

Theoretical propositions comprise of connections between abstract constructs. Testing theories require measuring these constructs precisely, effectively, and in a scientific way, before the quality of their connections can be tried. Measurement alludes to cautious, think perceptions of this present reality and is the pith of empirical research.

Conceptualization is the mental process by which fluffy and uncertain constructs and their constituent segments are characterized in concrete and exact terms. For example, we regularly utilize “prejudice” and the word invokes a specific image in our mind, be that as it may, we may battle in the event that we were requested to characterize precisely what the term implied. On the off chance that somebody says awful things in regards to other racial gatherings, is that racial prejudice?

On the off chance that women gain not as much as men for a similar job, is that gender prejudice? On the off chance that churchgoers trust that nonbelievers will consume in hell, is that religious prejudice? Are there various types of prejudice, and assuming this is the case, what are they? Are there various levels of prejudice, for example, high or low? Noting these inquiries is the way to measuring the prejudice construct effectively. The process of understanding what is incorporated and what is rejected in the idea of prejudice is the conceptualization process.

In characterizing constructs like prejudice or compassion, we should comprehend that occasionally, these constructs are not genuine or can exist freely, but rather are basically imaginary manifestations in our mind. For example, there might be sure clans on the planet who need prejudice and who can’t envision what this idea involves. Be that as it may, all things considered, we tend to regard this idea as genuine.

[Image Source](

One essential choice in conceptualizing constructs is indicating whether they are unidimensional and multidimensional. Unidimensional constructs are those that are relied upon to have a solitary basic dimension. These constructs can be measured utilizing a solitary measure. Illustrations incorporate straightforward constructs, for example, a man’s weight, wind speed, and most likely even complex constructs like selfesteem.

Multidimensional constructs comprise of at least two hidden dimensions. For example, on the off chance that we conceptualize a man’s scholastic inclination as comprising of two dimensions, for example, mathematical and verbal capacity, at that point scholarly fitness is a multidimensional construct. Every one of the fundamental dimensions for this situation must be measured independently, utilizing diverse tests for mathematical and verbal capacity, and the two scores can be joined, perhaps in a weighted way, to make a general an incentive for the scholarly bent construct.

Operationalization alludes to the process of creating indicators or things for measuring these constructs. Indicators operate at the empirical level, rather than constructs, which are conceptualized at the theoretical level. The blend of indicators at the empirical level speaking to a given construct is known as a variable. Likewise every indicator may have a few attributes and each attribute speak to an esteem. Estimations of attributes might be quantitative or qualitative.

[Image Source](

Quantitative information can be broke down utilizing quantitative information examination procedures, for example, relapse or basic condition modeling, while qualitative information require qualitative information investigation systems, for example, coding. Note that numerous variables in social science research are qualitative, notwithstanding when spoken to in a quantitative way. In any case, take note of that the numbers are just names related with respondents’ close to home assessment of their own fulfillment, and the basic variable is as yet qualitative despite the fact that we spoke to it in a quantitative way.

2 Kinds of Indicators
* Reflective
* Formative

A reflective indicator is a measure that reflects a hidden construct. For instance, if religiosity is characterized as a construct that measures how religious a man is, at that point going to religious administrations might be a reflective indicator of religiosity.

A formative indicator is a measure that forms or adds to a basic construct. Such indicators may speak to various dimensions of the construct of interest. For example, if religiosity is characterized as making out of a conviction dimension, a reverential dimension, and a custom dimension, at that point indicators measured every one of these diverse dimensions will be viewed as formative indicators.

[Image Source](

Constructs in Quantitative Research
Measuring Constructs
Measurement of Psychological Constructs

The Comprehensive Plan for Data Mining and Collection in Every Research

The Comprehensive Plan for Data Mining and Collection in Every Research

[Image Source](

3 Processes of Empirical Research

* Data collection process
* Instrument development process
* Sampling process

Data Collection Process
This process is called as the research design and can be characterized into two classifications: Positivist and Interpretive.

Gone for theory testing. It utilize a deductive approach to research, beginning with a theory and testing theoretical proposes utilizing empirical data. Positivist research utilizes dominatingly quantitative data, yet can likewise utilize qualitative data

Utilize an inductive approach that begins with data and attempts to determine a theory about the marvel of interest from the watched data. As a rule, these techniques are erroneously likened with quantitative and qualitative research. Interpretive research depends intensely on qualitative data, yet can sometimes profit by including quantitative data also. Sometimes, joint utilization of qualitative and quantitative data may help produce special knowledge into an intricate social wonder that are not accessible from either sorts of data alone.

Traits of a Research Design

* Internal Validity
* External Validity
* Construct Validity
* Statistical Conclusion Validity

[Image Source](

Internal Validity
Internal validity, additionally called causality, inspects whether the watched change in a dependent variable is surely caused by a relating change in conjectured independent variable, and not by variables unessential to the research setting.

Required conditions of Causality
* Covariation of cause and effect
* Temporal precedence
* No plausible elective clarification

Different designs, for example, field surveys, are poor in internal validity because of their failure to control the independent variable, and because cause and effect are measured at a similar point in time which massacres temporal precedence making it similarly likely that the normal effect may have impacted the normal cause instead of the switch. Albeit higher in internal validity contrasted with different strategies, laboratory experiments are, in no way, shape or form, insusceptible to dangers of internal validity, and are helpless to history, testing, instrumentation, relapse, and different dangers.

External Validity
External validity or generalizability alludes to whether the watched affiliations can be generalized from the example to the population, or to other individuals, associations, settings, or time. For example, can comes about drawn from an example of financial firms in the United States be generalized to the population of financial firms or to different firms inside the United States?

Survey research, where data is sourced from a wide assortment of people, firms, or different units of investigation, has a tendency to have more extensive generalizability than laboratory experiments where falsely devised medications and solid control over incidental variables render the discoveries less generalizable to real-life settings where medicines and unessential variables can’t be controlled.

A few researchers guarantee that there is a tradeoff amongst internal and external validity, higher external validity can come just at the cost of internal validity and the other way around. Yet, this isn’t generally the case.

[Image Source](

Research with higher validity of both internal and external:
* Field Experiments
* Longitudinal Field Surveys
* Various Case Studies

Construct Validity
Construct validity inspects how well a given measurement scale is estimating the theoretical construct that it is required to measure. Numerous constructs utilized as a part of social science research, for example, empathy, protection from change, and authoritative learning are hard to characterize, considerably less measure. For example, construct validity must guarantee that a measure of empathy is for sure estimating empathy and not compassion, which might be troublesome since these constructs are to some degree comparative in importance.

Statistical Conclusion Validity
Statistical conclusion validity looks at the degree to which conclusions determined utilizing a statistical technique is substantial. For instance, it looks at whether the privilege statistical technique was utilized for theory testing, regardless of whether the variables utilized meet the suspicions of that statistical test. Because interpretive research designs don’t utilize statistical test, statistical conclusion validity isn’t relevant for such investigation.

[Image Source](

Research Design
Basic Research Designs
Empirical Research
The Process of Empirical Research
Different research designs and their characteristics
Qualities of a Research Design
Validity in Experimental Research

Social Science Theories

Social Science Theories

[Image Source](

* Agency Theory
* Theory of Planned Behavior
* Innovation Diffusion Theory
* General Deterrence Theory

Agency Theory

A great theory in the authoritative economics literature, was initially proposed by Ross to clarify two-party connections whose objectives are not harmonious with each other. The objective of agency theory is to determine ideal contracts and the conditions under which such contracts may help limit the impact of objective incongruence.

Parties on this theory:
* Principal
* Agent

The principal utilizes the agent to play out specific tasks for its sake and it’s objective is snappy and compelling finish of the doled out task.

The agent’s objective might work at its own particular pace, maintaining a strategic distance from risks, and looking for self-interest over corporate interests.

Aggravating the idea of the issue might be data asymmetry issues caused by the principal’s failure to sufficiently watch the agent’s behavior or precisely assess the agent’s skill sets. Such asymmetry may prompt agency issues where the agent may not advance the exertion expected to complete the task or may distort its mastery or skills to land the position yet not execute of course.

Agency theory recommends devices that principals may utilize to enhance the adequacy of behavior-based contracts, for example, putting resources into checking mechanisms to counter the data asymmetry caused by moral danger, planning sustainable contracts dependent upon agent’s execution, or by enhancing the structure of the relegated task to make it more programmable and subsequently more noticeable.

[Image Source](

Theory of Planned Behavior

A generalized theory of human behavior in the social psychology literature that can be utilized to consider an extensive variety of individual behaviors. It presumes that individual behavior speaks to cognizant contemplated decision, and is molded by cognitive thinking and social weights. The theory proposes that behaviors are based on one’s expectation with respect to that behavior, which thusly is a component of the individual’s attitude toward the behavior, subjective standard in regards to that behavior, and view of control over that behavior.

Attitude is characterized as the person’s general positive or negative feelings about playing out the behavior being referred to, which might be surveyed as a summation of one’s convictions with respect to the diverse results of that behavior, weighted by the attractive quality of those outcomes. Subjective standard alludes to one’s impression of whether individuals imperative to that individual anticipate that the individual will play out the intended behavior, and spoke to as a weighted blend of the normal standards of various referent groups, for example, colleagues, friends, or supervisors.

Behavioral control is one’s impression of internal or external controls constraining the behavior being referred to. Internal controls may incorporate the individual’s capacity to play out the intended behavior, while external control alludes to the accessibility of external assets expected to play out that behavior. This theory likewise proposes that sometimes individuals may intend to play out a given behavior yet do not have the assets expected to do as such, and hence recommends that sets that behavioral control can directly affect behavior.

[Image Source](

Innovation Diffusion Theory

A fundamental theory in the communications literature that clarifies how innovations are received inside a populace of potential adopters. The idea was first concentrated by French humanist Gabriel Tarde, however the theory was produced by Everett Rogers based on perceptions of 508 diffusion ponders.

Four Elements of Innovation Diffusion Theory
* Innovation
* Communication channels
* Time
* Social systems

Innovations may incorporate new advances, new practices, or new thoughts, and adopters might be people or associations. At the macro level, IDT sees innovation diffusion as a procedure of communication where individuals in a social framework find out about another innovation and its potential advantages through communication channels and are influenced to embrace it.

Five Stages of Innovation Adoption
* Knowledge
* Persuasion
* Decision
* Implementation
* Confirmation

Five Innovation Characteristics to shape innovation adoption:
* Relative Advantage
* Compatibility
* Complexity
* Trialability
* Observability

[Image Source](

General Deterrence Theory

Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, planned General Deterrence Theory as both a clarification of crime and a technique for decreasing it. It looks at why certain people take part in degenerate, antisocial, or criminal behaviors. This theory holds that individuals are on a very basic level judicious, and that they unreservedly pick degenerate behaviors based on a balanced cost-benefit calculation.

Since individuals normally pick utility-maximizing behaviors, degenerate decisions that engender individual pick up or joy can be controlled by expanding the costs of such behaviors as punishments and additionally expanding the likelihood of anxiety.

Key constructs of GDT
* Swiftness of punishments
* Severity of punishments
* Certainty of punishments

While classical positivist research in criminology looks for generalized reasons for criminal behaviors, for example, neediness, absence of education, psychological conditions, and recommends procedures to restore criminals, GDT centers around the criminal decision making process and situational factors that impact that procedure. Consequently, a criminal’s close to home circumstance and the environmental context play key parts in this decision making process. The focal point of GDT isn’t the manner by which to restore criminals and turn away future criminal behaviors, yet how to make criminal exercises less alluring and along these lines forestall crimes.

[Image Source](

The Economic Theory of Agency
Analysis of Agency Theory
Theory of Planned Behavior
Diffusion of Innovations
Deterrence Theory